MEGAFAUNA

The global climate during Pleistocene, from 1.8 million years ago until 10.000 years ago, alternated repeatedly between hot periods and cold phases when ice covered much of the world’s land masses. An adaptation frequently found among fauna during these glacial periods is an increase in size – when a living being becomes bigger, its volume which is where the body generates heat, grows more quickly than its surface through which this heat is dissipated – this is the age of Megafauna, time of an incredibly diverse and fascinating set of large mammals species, which are now extinct! Among most iconic species are the mammoth and woolly rhino (Eurasia), the dire-wolf , the saber-toothed cat Smilodon and the Americal lion (North America), the cave bear and the short-faced bear, giant marsupials (Australia), the giant deer, etc. This was precisely the world that Homo Sapiens stepped into as we spread beyond Africa, all the way to America. Had we never appeared, would those now-missing mammals still be here? And will they ever be back?

Except Africa, where humans and Megafauna evolved together, and African animals had the chance to adjust as our presence increased, learning how to be wary of us and evolving in ways to elude us, the Megafauna on the other continents was totally taken by surprise by the new invasive species, hunting in groups, mastering the fire and the tools to hunt them from a safety distance!

Today we can only see remnants of this lost world in natural science museums. But will one day some of these species be resurrected with the help of modern gene technology and biotechnology, which are progressing so incredibly fast? And where would they fit on a planet populated by almost 7.7 bn people today? The idea of a Jurassic kind of Park, but with mammoths instead of dinosaurs, appeals to many scientists (and businessmen), even if for curiosity, to push the limits of creation and see how far they can get (or for fame or profit)…Let’s see (I recommend an excellent book for who wants to learn more: Torill Kornfeldt‘s The re-Origin of Species)!

In the meantime, we can learn from history and make sure we won’t drive into extinction other species or the entire ecosystem we rely upon, to be wise enough to stop the Holocene 6th mass species extinction (also known as Anthropocene extinction or Quaternary extinction event), that we humans started with Megafauna, and continues with today Wildlife species at accelerated speed!

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Giant Deer

Happy International Day of Forests!

Because there cannot be genuine Wildlife and Nature without Forests, nor a healthy ecosystem from which we are part of, as every year, lets take the time today to remember and contemplate The International Day of Forests! If your are in Northern hemisphere, this time of year is best to put your tracking shoes and go search the arrival spring season where it is most spectacular, in an authentic blooming forest, you will never feel more alive! And where-ever you are around the world, remember the Forest was once our home, and even today is best remedy against day to day stress and body and mind peace and balance! Alone in the woods, you enter in communion with fellow Homo sapiens through the ages! Therefore, enjoy the day, and don’t forget to protect the Forest, starting by being a responsible consumer in today society, this is the very minimum each can do (some tips to start with on our blog on ECO page)!

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Happy World Wildlife Day 2019!

A Day like no other, a Day to remember this is not a story only about us, a Day to be humble, embrace and admire nature, with its most wonderful creations: thousands and thousands of different species, each unique in its own way, which make this world so special, and it is worth every bit to fight preserving it: wild and unspoiled! Happy World Wildlife Day 2019, for all of you around the world, who give your time and passion to admire and learn more about Wildlife!

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Did you know that…

all life on Earth has a common origin?

The chemical elements are the basis of all matter (from rocks, minerals, and ores, to air, water, plants, animals and humans) and are the foundation of all life. For example, the human body is made of following elements:

  • Oxygen – 65% (site of origin: supernovae)
  • Carbon – 18.5% (site of origin: Red Giants)
  • Hydrogen – 9,5% (site of origin: Big Bang)
  • Nitrogen – 3,3% (site of origin: Red Giants)
  • Calcium – 1,5% (site of origin: supernovae)
  • Phosphorus – 1,0% (site of origin: supernovae)
  • Iron – 0,006% (site of origin: Super Giants)

By studding meteorites, scientists discovered the origins of these elements in the space – nuclear fusion reaction deep inside a star, like our Sun, produces Hydrogen, whereas Iron is formed at high temperatures and under high pressure by other fusion reactions in the interior of old dying stars, or other elements are formed during supernovae explosions, whose remnants are expanding gas clouds that distribute the elements into space, which provide the raw material for new stars and planets – and for us) – and hence the famous expression: “We all are stardust” !

During the course of Earth’s history, each biologically bound nitrogen atom has been recycled 1.000 times already, while oxygen atoms have gone through 60 cycles so far. Death, decay and decomposition close natural resource cycles. The nutrients taken up during feeding are released again and thus made available to other organisms. The increase and loss of matter is negligible. Each year about 100.000 tons of cosmic dust reach Earth. Conversely, a small amount of atmosphere is lost by erosion through solar wind.

When it comes to living organisms, more proof of same origin and similarities occur:

  • all organisms use the same 23 amino acids to form proteins although there are more than 250 potential amino acids
  • all amino acids in organisms are left-handed molecules, although right-handed variants exist in nature as well
  • all organisms use the bio-molecule DNA as the carrier for genetic information
  • the sources of energy for life are charged hydrogen atoms, packed in the energy-storage molecule

This reemphasizes the connectivity between all life on Earth, and similarity between humans and other animal species and plants! For all the external differences, deep down, we’re very much alike! 

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Israel and Wildlife conservation

Isreal is a small country in Near East, but with a fundamental role in wildlife conservancy, thanks to its location at the junction of three continents: Europe, Asia and Africa, making it one of the busiest flyways of migratory birds.

Israel is also known as the Start-up Nation, being internationally renowned for its creativity in technology, and 2 applications stand above others in their use to benefit people, as well as the wildlife, setting an example for other countries, that technological innovations can and should be employed, to mitigate some of the negative impacts on the environment that result from our current way of living. Firstly, as extensively explained in Seth Siegel‘s book “Let there be Water“, Isreal managed, through technological innovation but also good practice and education, not only to avoid a water crisis due to its geographic reality (biggest part of the country being desert or semi-desert) and high population density, but to be self-sustainable from agricultural point of view (most water-intensive activity) and even become a fresh water exporter (through sewage treatment and re-usage in agriculture, water efficient drip irrigation, desalinization, underground aquifers usage, fair pricing of water to its population without government subsidies, extensive school education in water usage and floods water capture infrastructure)! Israel has come a long way to reach this status in water availability and practices and now can afford to allocate some of this fresh water and land into conservancy (government is still in charge of its water resources and its distribution, this has never been privatized in Israel by current market models of other developed countries, where even if regulated, the main stakeholder would only be interested in profit, which would be proportional with higher irresponsible consumption by population), for few key locations used by birds every year (managed by Israel Nature and Park Authority, birding sites click here) as resting and feeding ground on their annual journey from Nordic plains in summer to warm grounds in Africa in winter. The second invention was of special radars to monitor the seasonal bird migrations and adjust the time-table and routes of their military and commercial flights to avoid the risk of collision with the birds, reducing the number of incidents from 123 in 1983 to reportedly less than 10 per year in present, again benefiting both people and wildlife!

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In terms of land conservation for wildlife mammals unfortunately only the minimum possible seems to have been made, with some iconic Biblical species (the Somali Wild Ass, the Addax, the White Oryx or the Onger), living in large enclosures, like the one we visited called Hay-Bar Nature Reserve. The Negev desert was once the home also for the iconic Arabian leopard, but since 2017 it is considered officially extinct, at least in Dead Sea area. Based on the individuals still living in captivity, hopefully more can be done for these superbly adaptive species, to be reintroduced in the wild, to be once again part of a healthier desert ecosystem!

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Some sources for more details, for the ones of you interested in visiting Israel for wildlife monitoring:

Israel Birding Portal

ebird.org – maybe the best known birds monitoring website, where anyone can contribue

10 best locations for Bird-watching in Israel

Hula Valley

Hay-Bar Nature Reserve

The Red Sea corals

The Red Sea is a rich and diverse ecosystem, and one of the 10 most famous diving spots in the world. More than 1200 species of fish have been recorded in the Red Sea, and around 10% of these are found nowhere else! Not to mention the dolphins and sea-turtles, or other charismatic wildlife species! 8 countries have access to the coast of the Red Sea, these are: Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Sudan, Eritrea, Djibouti, Yemen, Jordan and Israel (our recent tourist destination – city of Eilat).

The rich diversity is in part due to the 2,000 km (1,240 mi) of coral reef extending along its coastline; these fringing reefs are 5000–7000 years old and are largely formed of stony acropora and porites corals (mostly stony corals, but also many soft species). Corals are colonial animals which construct skeletal structure of limestone, often forming extensive reefs. Corals, or polyps, attach permanently to a surface such as a rock face, and slowly build themselves the protective structures and networks we see as the coral reefs. They mostly live in shallow tropical waters, as they depend on algae, that live inside them, as a source of food. The algae need sunlight, and through photosynthesis provide oxygen to the coral, and in turn, the coral gives off the carbon dioxide that algae needs (a genuine symbiosis relationship). Fish species are also dependent on coral reef for food, protection and reproduction.

Approximately 10% of the world’s coral reefs are dead. About 60% of the world’s reefs are at risk due to human-related activities. The threat to reef health is particularly strong in Southeast Asia, where 80% of reefs are endangered. Over 50% of the world’s coral reefs may be destroyed by 2030! A healthy ocean, which is paramount to the full ecosystem from which we are part, depends on the health of its corals (a map of world’s coral spots attached below). Today coral reefs are under stress around the world, from pollution, over-fishing, disease, digging of canals, unsustainable tourism and broader threats like sea temperature rise, which may alter the pH and cause ocean acidification (associated with green house emissions), causing coral to break easier and eventually bleach (die). And their natural recovery period is taking much longer than in the case of forests or other ecosystems, so their destruction is more lasting!

coral map

Other type of negative impact the Lessepsian migration (also called Erythrean invasion) – the migration of marine species across the Suez Canal (Egypt), usually from the Red Sea to the Mediterranean Sea, and more rarely in the opposite direction. To this day, about 300 species native to the Red Sea have been identified in the Mediterranean Sea, and probably others are as yet unidentified.  While some alien species can have a positive impact on an ecosystem, either by fulfilling a need in an area under stress, or by providing an additional food source, others can become invasive, displacing native species and degrading local habitats.

The Red Sea is already one of the saltiest bodies of water in the world, owing to high evaporation. In addition, there are at least 18 man-made desalination plants along the Red Sea coast of Saudi Arabia which discharge warm brine and treatment chemicals that bleach and kill corals and cause diseases to the fish. Other countries are not scoring higher in terms of sustainability. Even Israel, one of the smallest countries in the world (however one of most densely populated) but with most advance economy in the region, puts a lot of stress on the environment, due to its limited space, semi-arid climate, high population growth and resource scarcity, which may lead to water shortages and long-term unsustainable practices to produce it, pollution, shrinking of the Dead Sea (a human accelerated ecological disaster), waste production and its disposal practices.

We can always make a difference as tourists to assure sustainability and health of the Red Sea corals! While your presence will give the economic incentive to the authorities to protect the corals through special laws, your sustainable practices in terms of plastic usage, or chosen means of local transportation, or eco criteria of picking local providers of services, or other personal consumption habits, or usage of ecological sun-screams, or underwater coral protection from touching or hitting! This way we will protect nature and we will surely enjoy a wonderful time, allowing future generations also to benefit from these underwater wonders!

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sdrdavCoral Reef and Tropical Fish in the Red Sea, Egypt

More professional pics here: Eilat Underwater Observatory, enjoy!