Salmon is the common name for several species of ray-finned fish in the family Salmonidae (including trouts). Typically, salmon are anadromous: they hatch in fresh water, migrate to the ocean, then return to fresh water to reproduce, usually in same place where they were born (1 to 5 years cycle), using on of Nature’s finest built-in Global Positioning Systems (using possibly 3 sensory tools to work at full capacity: geomagnetic sense, smell and possibly vision). Prior to spawning, depending on the species, salmon undergo changes, they may grow a hump, develop canine-like teeth, or develop a kype (a pronounced curvature of the jaws in male salmon) – below table (Kamchatka) shows how different an individual of same local species may show in the main life periods.
Salmon can make amazing journeys, sometimes moving hundreds of miles upstream against strong currents and rapids to reproduce. Condition tends to deteriorate the longer the fish remain in fresh water, and they then deteriorate further after they spawn, most of them dying after the reproduction cycle finishes.
The importance of the salmon in the ecosystem is paramount! A large number of predators benefit from the annual salmon migrations, best known are the bears and the eagles, but it has been proven that even the forest is benefiting the nutritious substances released in the water by the decomposing bodies, in British Colombia’s rivers in Canada, the trees growing next to river are much taller than others, and the phosphor and other substances from fish have left their positive marks in the composition and rings of the those trees.
According to Wikipedia, of 435 wild stocks of salmon and steelhead, only 187 of them were classified as healthy; 113 had an unknown status, one was extinct, 12 were in critical condition and 122 were experiencing depressed populations. Over-fishing and climate change effects may impact the most the salmon populations in future, and the artificial measure taken by man may not be enough to save some salmon species, and that in return may impact many ecosystems. Among the measures taken, as noticed in Russia’s Kamchatka, are artificial spawning places and release of the baby salmons into the rivers. Fingers crossed for this magnificent species and symbol of the wild, to win the survival race!